Physics Proves Parallel Universes Exist


Is it possible to live another life in a parallel universe or omniverse? When you experience déjà vu, are you recalling an experience in a parallel universe? The idea of ​​other dimensions has led to many theories over the years, as well as being the cornerstone of many religions.

Albert Einstein speculated about the possible existence of a parallel universe, Hugh Everett officially proposed it. A parallel universe is an alternate reality coexisting in a different timeline with a said universe, like ours. A specific group of parallel universes is called “multiverse” although this term can also be used to describe all the possible parallel universes that may constitute reality.

According to science, the definition of parallel universes is “universes that are separated from each other by a single quantum event”

In the last line the emphasis was on the term quantum. According to quantum mechanics, one cannot say that anything exists at a certain point on the subatomic level until it is definitely observed.

Which means that there must be a conscious viewer, being you or me. Till then, particles such as electrons occupy a cloud of “overlapping” states, where these can simultaneously spin “up” and “down” or appear in different places at the same time.

How Is This Possible? 

To even try to understand it, you have to think really, really small. Smaller than an atom. Electrons  circle the nucleus of an atom and are swirling around in multiple states at the same time — they’re hard to pin down. It’s only when we try to measure the exact position of an electron, that we force it to have a specific location.

“When you observe something in one state, one theory is it split the universe into two parts,” is what  Cleland told,” trying to explain how there can be multiple universes and we can see only one of them.”

The multi-verse theory says the entire universe “freezes” during observation, and we see only one reality. You see a baseball ball flying through the air, but maybe in a second universe the ball has already dropped. Or you were looking the other way. Or they don’t even play soccer over there.

But it all comes down to how we understand time.


We don’t exactly feel time, we simply know it by past events that we can draw a relation to in order to give us a perception of time.  For example, time moves fast on when you are “having fun” yet very slowly when you are in a situation that you don’t necessarily want to be in. Or if you’ve planned a big day, like a wedding and time slowly passes all of the way leading up until the day, and when the day arrives it’s over before you know it.

Back to the Future 

“Time seems to be a one-way street that runs from the past to the present,” says Fred Alan Wolf, a.k.a. Dr. Quantum, a physicist and author to “But take into consideration theories that look at the level of quantum fields … particles that travel both forward and backward in time. If we leave out the forward-and-backwards-in-time part, we miss out on some of the physics.”

Wolf is quoted saying that — at least in quantum mechanics — doesn’t move straight like an arrow. It zig-zags, and he thinks it may be possible to build a machine that lets you bend time.

“Newton said all time is universal and all clocks tick the same way,” Gott says. “Now with Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity we know that travel into the future is possible. With Einstein’s theory of gravity, the laws of physics as we understand them today suggest that even time travel to the past is possible in principle. But to see whether time travel to the past can actually be realized we may have to learn new laws of physics that step in at the quantum level.”

“Our concepts of cause and effect will fly out the window,” says Ben Bova, the science fiction author. “People will — for various reasons — try to fix the past or escape into the future. But we may never notice these effects, if the universe actually diverges. Maybe somebody already has invented a time machine and our history is being constantly altered, but we don’t notice the kinks in our path through time.”


‘Galactic dinosaurs’ found hiding in plain sight

galactic dinosaur

Chuck Bednar for – @BednarChuck Astronomers have long wondered exactly what fate befell the compact massive galaxies that could be found throughout the universe during its infancy, but new research from experts at the Swinburne University of Technology may have finally discovered the answer. According to Alister Graham, a professor of astronomy at the university… Continue reading “‘Galactic dinosaurs’ found hiding in plain sight”

NASA to Livestream Test of ‘Flying Saucer’


NASA is set to livestream a “spin-table test” of its very own flying saucer tomorrow. The first proven sighting of a flying saucer hasn’t come from alien invaders, but from NASA’s Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project, which is being developed to deliver large payloads safely to the surface of planets with atmospheres, even a slight one… Continue reading “NASA to Livestream Test of ‘Flying Saucer’”

10 Future Technologies That Will Change the World

screenless10- Screen less Display:  Screen less displays utilizes the transmission of information with out the requirement of actually having a physical screen. This emerging technology includes 3d images, far point images as well as a large angle of view. It is light weight and will revolutionize entertainment as a whole.



virtual9. Virtual Reality: The future is made of virtual insanity, this technology is poised to become a technological revolution among consumers. Bought by Facebook for 2 billion dollars it main focus is on gaming. Immersed to a level of experiencing it as real life. Gamer’s will be able to enter a virtual world, from the comfort of your own living room.


holographic8. Holographic Television: After 4K TV, and after 3D flopped; holographic TV will increase the viewing area. Eventually you will be able to project holographic images from your own phone! A chip has already been created able to display 50 giga pixels per second. This will also benefit other fields such as medicine, security and general data.



wireless7. Wireless Electricity: Will be emerging within the next decade. Several companies are developing electric hubs capable of powering up to an entire house. Which is made capable by research which being carried out by MIT. This concept is based on by electromagnetic waves, making it simple for the transference of energy. While electricity can be transferred between objects resonating at the same frequency.

hyper train6. Hypersonic Trains: Japan the inventor of the worlds first bullet train, is currently working on a floating train powered by magnets, which will travel 100 miles per hour faster than current bullet trains. (which are around 300 miles per hour) “Maglev” trains–( magnetic levitation) will cost 64 billion dollars and will be completed by 2045. China has already built a Maglev train that could reach 1800 miles per hour. China has a Maglev currently that travels at 270 miles per hour.


neuro5.  NeuroHacking: Neuro scientists are developing methods to read peoples minds. They are doing it with machines, and it has been in the work for decades. Technology is advancing and by decoding brainwaves, science and machines will have direct access to our thoughts. Lets think about this for a minute… Mind manipulation from a remote source will be possible??  I am not sure if I’m ok with this. How about you? In the future humanoids will be linked to computer systems. Fantastic.

invisible4. Invisibilty: Invisibility cloaks already exist! In 2011, researchers created a invisibility cloak tiny enough to hide objects the size of a red blood cell. The cloak is created by artificial materials called meta materials, which hide the object by altering the light that hits it. Scientists are now working on recreating this cloak for larger objects



flying cars3. Flying Cars: Scientists have been working on this for a half of a century already and many protypes have been created.. some dangerous. There are a lot of bugs that need to be worked including, flight paths, regulation safety, landing zones, training people to do it… etc Nevertheless by  2050, we should see this come to fruition.

3d2. 3D Printing: it has already taken off in a big big way, so much so that people are actually making houses with them. A 3d printer prints layers of the material on top of the other to produce a real physcial model allowing it to create any shape. Right now the technology is quite costly and slow but soon we will be able to create more robust parts more quickly as technology advances. One day you may be able to print your own home, your own car, your own phone and who knows what else!



robot1. Autonomous Robots: As soon as 2030, a technological singularity will emerge with the leading theory being that artificial intelligence in the form of autonomous robots might rival humans in independent thinking and creativity. So to say it plainly, robots will surpass humans in intelligence.

Welcome to the Future!

Credits: Top10Media

Scientific Evidence Proves Our Hearts Have Consciousness


The heart is one of the most talked about organs in the human body. Weighing a mere 10 ounces it drives the whole body with the incessant, requisite pumping of blood.

Recently, scientists have discovered that outside of its regular pumping regime, the heart is a much more complex organ than initially thought. Some researchers even claim that it has the characteristics of a functional brain that can work both independently of and in conjunction with the cerebral cortex and thus aid us in processing all that sensory information!

Now you will be thinking how does the heart communicate with the brain? Well, in simple anatomy the heart, like any other organ or point in the body, is connected to the central nervous system through a network of nerves that convey information both forwards and backwards.

However to emphasize heart’s integral role, it has the densest network of neurons in any organ out of the nervous system with up to 14,000 of them crammed into the fist-sized organ. In addition, it has been learnt that the heart’s electromagnetic field is the strongest in the body. It has been measured to be about 60 times as strong as that of the brain and thus permeates every cell in the human body.heart

The heart, with its powerful, omnipresent rhythm, dictates the electromagnetic cohesion in the human body. It has been observed that oscillatory systems like the blinking of the eyes and the respiratory rate, tend to mimic the pace of the heart when sustained strong feelings like stress and love are experienced.

Research at the Heart Math Institute has shown that the information pertaining to the emotional state of a person is also communicated via the electromagnetic field of the heart. The pulsating patterns of heart rate changes significantly as we experience different emotions. Negative emotions such as frustration and anger, are associated with an erratic, disorganized and incoherent heart rhythm pattern. In contrast, positive emotions like gratitude and love, are associated with a smooth, orderly and coherent activity in the heart rhythm.heart3

In turn, these changes in the heart rate pattern create corresponding changes in the amplitude and frequency of the electromagnetic field radiated by the heart. A sensitive, graphical technique known as spectral analysis allows for the measurements of such subtle changes in the electromagnetic fields.

More interestingly, it has been shown by the researchers at the Institute of Heart Math that sustained positive emotions appear to give rise to a different mode of operation that has been labelled as psychophysiological coherence.

During it, the heart rate exhibits a pattern of almost sinusoidal waveform and heart’s electromagnetic field becomes much more organized. At a physiological level, this manner of operation is characterized by increased efficiency and harmony in the activity and interaction of all bodily systems. On the psychological front, psychophysiological coherence is associated with a significant reduction in internal mental dialogue, reduced perceptions of stress, increased emotional balance and improved mental clarity, intuitive insight and cognitive performance. All in all, this state of the heart is beneficial for the whole body.

Another quite interesting notion presented by scientists at the Institute of Heart Math is that the heart may play an important role in communication between individuals. Most people think of communication as speaking, facial expressions, modulation and gestures.

However, there is now evidence that a subtle yet influential energy-based communication system operates just below our level of consciousness.

These energetic interactions likely contribute to the attraction or magnetic repulsion between individuals and thus affect social interaction and relationships.

Experiments conducted at the Institute of Heart Math, found significant evidence that the heart’s electromagnetic field can transmit information to people with cardiac energy exchange between separate individuals up to five feet away!

In addition to this transmit of information to and fro from people, it has been found that such an exchange is also possible with animals. There is something so beautiful about the latter scenario; you can even communicate with something that doesn’t necessarily speak.heart2

In short, the heart does not just slave over pumping blood through our body. Despite the lack of an independent corroboration of Hearth Math’s work, it can still be deduced that the human heart has a much deeper and integral role in the fabric of our being.

LJ Vanier

Scientific Proof The Human Body Emits Light!

emits light

Scientific Proof The Human Body Emits Light:

Bioluminescence is a phenomenon that occurs in organisms such as fireflies as a result of enzymatic reactions that require specialized adenosine triphosphate (the molecule that provides us energy). However, virtually all living organisms emit extremely weak light, spontaneously and without external photo-excitation. This process, known as biophoton emission, is believed to be a byproduct of biochemical reactions that occur between excited molecules from bioenergetic processes involving reactive oxygen species. Contrary to popular belief, humans also emit light in the form of biophotons but it is emanated at a level that is a thousand times less than the one our eyes normally detect. However, scientists have shown the human body emitting light using charge coupled devices (CCD) that are capable of detecting light at a single photon level. Using these devices spontaneous emission images were obtained from subjects in a dark room.

light body

Emissions of biophotons or ultraweak photons is most concentrated in the facial region of a human. However, it is not homogenous here and biophoton generation is more biased toward the cheek, mouth and nose areas rather than the lateral ones. Scientists have also found that there is a diurnal rhythm that dictates biophoton emission in the human body with the photon density lowest in the early mornings and peaking at the afternoon mark.

light body

Neuroscientist, Professor Istvan Bokkon, has claimed that biophotons may play an integral role in our brain’s imaginative functions. He states, that biophotons that are released by the brain during its metabolic activity are trapped and used by the brain to generate vivid biophysical imagery. It has also been noted that we are unconsciously controlling the rate of biophoton emission in the brain. For example, it has been observed in an experiment that when a subject was forced to sit in a dark room and asked to imagine a lighted environment, there was an increase in biophoton emissions.

Scientists have speculated on the role of biophotons in the human body. What need does our body have to emit light? One hypothesis is that biophotons are sort of rapid, wireless signals that help body cells to communicate with one another. This is likely, since normal cell communication through chemical compounds is dependent on diffusion that is an inherently slow process. So, when a cell needs to be in coherence with another cell rapidly, as in neural communications and cell growth then biophotons present a quicker and more effective communications route.

Another theory is that these emissions give us an outlook on the internal conditions of the human body. For example. In a study, healthy individuals emitted biophotons at a consistent rate while those in any sort of health problem gave emissions in an erratic and pulsating manner. However, another study differs with the aforementioned research in that it believes that biophotons are a manifestation of harmful free radical reactions occurring in the body that are destroying cells and thus yielding the “emergency emissions” from the human body.

crystal healing

Additionally, while a majority of scientists believe that biophotons are a result of biochemical reactions occurring in the human body, acclaimed photobiologist Hugo Niggli presents a different and quite extraordinary explanation for the phenomenon. He believes that biophotons are a defense mechanism of the human body against harmful UV radiation. In an experiment he conducted, it was observed that the epidermal (top most) layer of the human skin contains cells that have the ability to absorb and emit UV light. In support of his theory, Niggli states that in people who have the xeroderma pigmentosum disorder (a genetic disorder which leads to the skins disability to repair UV damage), these emissions were almost nonexistent.

Conclusively, this is an interesting area in scientific research and further work in this category might lead to better detection and cure of disease while also contributing towards the understanding of our being.

Life is Abundant Throughout the Universe Here’s the Proof

dna universe

“You are older than you think – or at least, some of the iron in your blood is older, formed in galaxies millions of light years away and billions of years ago,” says Aurora Simionescu, who is currently with the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. New evidence that iron is spread evenly between the galaxies in one of the largest galaxy clusters in the universe supports the theory that the universe underwent a turbulent and violent youth more than 10 billion years ago. That explosive period was responsible for seeding the cosmos with iron and other heavy elementsthat are critical to life itself.

Researchers from the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC), jointly run by Stanford University and the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, shed light on this important era by analyzing 84 sets of X-ray telescope observations from the Japanese-US Suzaku satellite. Their results appear in the Oct. 31 issue of the journal Nature.In particular, the researchers looked at iron distribution throughout the Perseus cluster, a large grouping of galaxies about 250 million light-years away.

“We saw that iron is spread out between the galaxies remarkably smoothly,” said Norbert Werner, an astrophysicist at KIPAC and lead author of the paper. “That means it had to be present in the intergalactic gas before the Perseus cluster formed.”

The image below from Japan’s Suzaku satellite shows faint X-ray emission along eight different directions in the Perseus Galaxy Cluster, shown here in false color. Bluer colors indicate fainter X-ray emission. The dashed circle marks the cluster’s effective boundary, where new gas is now entering, and is 2.7 degrees wide.


Suzaku_chandra_perseus_labeled (1)

The even distribution of these elements supports the idea that they were created at least 10 billion to 12 billion years ago. According to the paper, during this time of intense star formation, billions of exploding stars created vast quantities of heavy elements in the alchemical furnaces of their own destruction. This was also the epoch when black holes in the hearts of galaxies were at their most energetic.

“The combined energy of these cosmic phenomena must have been strong enough to expel most of the metals from the galaxies at early times and to enrich and mix the intergalactic gas,” said co-author and KIPAC graduate student Ondrej Urban.

To settle the question of whether the heavy elements created by supernovae remain mostly in their home galaxies or are spread out through intergalactic space, the researchers looked through the Perseus cluster in eight different directions. They focused on the hot, 10-million-degree gas that fills the spaces between galaxies and found the spectroscopic signature of iron reaching all the way to the cluster’s edges.

The researchers estimate that the amount of iron in the cluster is roughly equivalent to the mass of 50 billion suns.

“We think most of the iron came from a single type of supernovae, called Type Ia supernovae,” said former KIPAC member and co-author Simionescu.

In a Type Ia supernova, a star explodes and releases all its material to the void. The researchers believe that at least 40 billion Type Ia supernovae must have exploded within a relatively short period on cosmological time scales in order to release that much iron and have the force to drive it out of the galaxies.

The results suggest that the Perseus cluster is probably not unique and that iron – along with other heavy elements – is evenly spread throughout all massive galaxy clusters, said Steven Allen, a KIPAC associate professor and head of the research team.

The researchers are now looking for iron in other clusters and eagerly awaiting a mission capable of measuring the concentrations of elements in the hot gas with greater accuracy.

“With measurements like these, the Suzaku satellite is having a profound impact on our understanding of how the largest structures in our universe grow,” Allen said. “We’re really looking forward to what further data can tell us.”

The image at the top of the page is an accumulation of 270 hours of Chandra X-Ray observations of the central regions of the Perseus galaxy cluster that reveals evidence of the turmoil that has wracked the cluster for hundreds of millions of years. One of the most massive objects in the universe, the cluster contains thousands of galaxies immersed in a vast cloud of multimillion degree gas with the mass equivalent of trillions of suns.

Enormous bright loops, ripples, and jet-like streaks are apparent in the image. The dark blue filaments in the center are likely due to a galaxy that has been torn apart and is falling into NGC 1275, a.k.a. Perseus A, the giant galaxy that lies at the center of the cluster.

Special processing designed to bring out low and high pressure regions in the hot gas has uncovered huge low pressure regions (shown in purple in the accompanying image overlay, and outlined with the white contour). These low pressure regions appear as expanding plumes that extend outward 300,000 light years from the supermassive black hole in NGC 1275.

The hot gas pressure is assumed to be low in the plumes because unseen bubbles of high-energy particles have displaced the gas. The plumes are due to explosive venting from the vicinity of the supermassive black hole.

The venting produces sound waves which heat the gas throughout the inner regions of the cluster and prevent the gas from cooling and making stars at a high rate. This process has slowed the growth of one of the largest galaxies in the Universe. It provides a dramatic example of how a relatively tiny, but massive, black hole at the center of a galaxy can control the heating and cooling behavior of gas far beyond the confines of the galaxy.

Soul Science via The Daily Galaxy via

Image Credit: Chandra and NASA/ISAS/DSS/O. Urban et al., MNRAS

Science & Spirituality Ignite (Video)


Jeff Lieberman is the host of the show Time Warp on Discovery Channel.

Lieberman, originally from Florida, holds two B.S. degrees, in Mathematics and Physics, and two M.S. degrees, in Mechanical Engineering and Media Arts & Sciences with a focus in Robotics, all from MIT

This video describes the reason for human suffering, understanding why we believe we are seperate from all and what it means to be human.

“What does it mean to be a human being? We are simply energy vibrating. If you look at your skin under a microscope, you will see trillions of cells, and atoms “doing a magic dance”. The entire universe is energy, the human being is a very complex pattern of energy. We are moving at the speed of light, we are the age of the universe.”

100 Billion Habitable Planets May Exist in the Milky Way Galaxy

Life on Earth exists because of the sun and our distance from it. Without that star and the energy it gives off, we’d be what NASA once described as a “lifeless ball of ice-coated rock.” Luckily, we are far enough from it, and as of right now, it’s not radiating so much light as to make our planet uninhabitable. In some ways, we’re in the sweet spot, and researchers may have discovered many more such connections.

Stars in the Milky Way may have 100 billion planets — two, on average, per star — in their habitable zone, the area far enough from the star to avoid the planet getting scorched but close enough for it to potentially hold liquid water, according to new research from the Australian National University and the Niels Bohr Institute in Denmark.

That number, 100 billion, may seem beyond comprehension, but “this result is actually not controversial,” Steffen Jacobsen, a PhD student in Astrophysics and Planetary Science at Niels Bohr, told Previous studies, he said, have predicted tens of billions of these planets. “In that sense, what we find is not surprising. Practically every researcher in the field expects there to be many, many planets in the habitable zone and many, many Earth-like planets.”

The potential for liquid water means the potential for life beyond Earth — assuming, that is, that water is as important to the evolution of life there as it was on our planet. “If you have liquid water, then you should have better conditions for life, we think,” Jacobsen said. “Of course, we don’t know this yet. We can’t say for certain.” Solving that mystery is part of the thrill for researchers looking for extraterrestrial life.

The distance to a star’s habitable zone depends on how big and bright the star is. Above, the green area is the habitable zone, and the red and blue are too hot and too cold, respectively, for liquid water. (NASA) 

In this case, Jacobsen and colleagues used a theory called the Titius-Bode law for their calculations. They looked at 151 of the nearly 400 planetary systems NASA’s Kepler mission has collected data on, omitting systems with just two planets and focusing on those with four, five or even 10. Put simply, Titius-Bode says that within a single planetary system, a pattern exists in the distance between planets. In other words, “if you know where the four planets lie [in a five-planet system], then you can calculate where the fifth one will lie,” Jacobsen explained.

This is important because right now these planets are purely theoretical, and within the 151 systems, just 77 planets made the researchers’ short list for possibility of actual discovery.

Now it’s up to the field at large to comb through scores of data to determine whether Kepler actually has already spotted some of these planets and we just didn’t know it. “Some of these planets are so small the Kepler team will probably have missed them in the first attempt because the signals we get are so weak. They may be hidden in the noise,” he said. “You may miss them … unless you know where to look and unless you know what to look for.”

That, in a nutshell, is the crux of this work. “Our research indicates that there are a lot of planets in the habitable zone and we know there are a lot of stars like the one we’re looking at. We know that means we’re going to have many billions of planets in the habitable zone,” according to Jacobsen. If that’s true, “that would be very good news for the search for life.”

NASA Finds Magnetic Portals Connect Sun to Earth

During the time it takes you to read this article, something will happen high overhead that until recently many scientists didn’t believe in. A magnetic portal will open, linking Earth to the sun 93 million miles away. Tons of high-energy particles may flow through the opening before it closes again, around the time you reach the end of the page.

“It’s called a flux transfer event or ‘FTE,'” says space physicist David Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight Center. “Ten years ago I was pretty sure they didn’t exist, but now the evidence is incontrovertible.”

Indeed, today Sibeck is telling an international assembly of space physicists at the 2008 Plasma Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama, that FTEs are not just common, but possibly twice as common as anyone had ever imagined.

breach_stripRight: An artist’s concept of Earth’s magnetic field connecting to the sun’s–a.k.a. a “flux transfer event”–with a spacecraft on hand to measure particles and fields.

Researchers have long known that the Earth and sun must be connected. Earth’s magnetosphere (the magnetic bubble that surrounds our planet) is filled with particles from the sun that arrive via the solar wind and penetrate the planet’s magnetic defenses. They enter by following magnetic field lines that can be traced from terra firma all the way back to the sun’s atmosphere.

“We used to think the connection was permanent and that solar wind could trickle into the near-Earth environment anytime the wind was active,” says Sibeck. “We were wrong. The connections are not steady at all. They are often brief, bursty and very dynamic.”

Several speakers at the Workshop have outlined how FTEs form: On the dayside of Earth (the side closest to the sun), Earth’s magnetic field presses against the sun’s magnetic field. Approximately every eight minutes, the two fields briefly merge or “reconnect,” forming a portal through which particles can flow. The portal takes the form of a magnetic cylinder about as wide as Earth. The European Space Agency’s fleet of four Cluster spacecraft and NASA’s five THEMIS probes have flown through and surrounded these cylinders, measuring their dimensions and sensing the particles that shoot through. “They’re real,” says Sibeck.

Now that Cluster and THEMIS have directly sampled FTEs, theorists can use those measurements to simulate FTEs in their computers and predict how they might behave. Space physicist Jimmy Raeder of the University of New Hampshire presented one such simulation at the Workshop. He told his colleagues that the cylindrical portals tend to form above Earth’s equator and then roll over Earth’s winter pole. In December, FTEs roll over the north pole; in July they roll over the south pole.

sun-earth-magnetic-connectionSibeck believes this is happening twice as often as previously thought. “I think there are two varieties of FTEs: active and passive.” Active FTEs are magnetic cylinders that allow particles to flow through rather easily; they are important conduits of energy for Earth’s magnetosphere. Passive FTEs are magnetic cylinders that offer more resistance; their internal structure does not admit such an easy flow of particles and fields. (For experts: Active FTEs form at equatorial latitudes when the IMF tips south; passive FTEs form at higher latitudes when the IMF tips north.) Sibeck has calculated the properties of passive FTEs and he is encouraging his colleagues to hunt for signs of them in data from THEMIS and Cluster. “Passive FTEs may not be very important, but until we know more about them we can’t be sure.”

There are many unanswered questions: Why do the portals form every 8 minutes? How do magnetic fields inside the cylinder twist and coil? “We’re doing some heavy thinking about this at the Workshop,” says Sibeck.

Meanwhile, high above your head, a new portal is opening, connecting your planet to the sun.

Author: Dr. Tony Phillips | Credit: [email protected]


NASA Has Found Hidden Portals In Earths Magnetic Field


According to Nasa :

A favorite theme of science fiction is “the portal”–an extraordinary opening in space or time that connects travelers to distant realms. A good portal is a shortcut, a guide, a door into the unknown. If only they actually existed….

It turns out that they do, sort of, and a NASA-funded researcher at the University of Iowa has figured out how to find them.

“We call them X-points or electron diffusion regions,” explains plasma physicist Jack Scudder of the University of Iowa. “They’re places where the magnetic field of Earth connects to the magnetic field of the Sun, creating an uninterrupted path leading from our own planet to the sun’s atmosphere 93 million miles away.”

Observations by NASA’s THEMIS spacecraft and Europe’s Cluster probes suggest that these magnetic portals open and close dozens of times each day. They’re typically located a few tens of thousands of kilometers from Earth where the geomagnetic field meets the onrushing solar wind. Most portals are small and short-lived; others are yawning, vast, and sustained. Tons of energetic particles can flow through the openings, heating Earth’s upper atmosphere, sparking geomagnetic storms, and igniting bright polar auroras.

NASA is planning a mission called “MMS,” short for Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission, due to launch in 2014, to study the phenomenon. Bristling with energetic particle detectors and magnetic sensors, the four spacecraft of MMS will spread out in Earth’s magnetosphere and surround the portals to observe how they work.

Just one problem: Finding them. Magnetic portals are invisible, unstable, and elusive. They open and close without warning “and there are no signposts to guide us in,” notes Scudder.

Actually, there are signposts, and Scudder has found them.

Portals form via the process of magnetic reconnection. Mingling lines of magnetic force from the sun and Earth criss-cross and join to create the openings. “X-points” are where the criss-cross takes place. The sudden joining of magnetic fields can propel jets of charged particles from the X-point, creating an “electron diffusion region.”

To learn how to pinpoint these events, Scudder looked at data from a space probe that orbited Earth more than 10 years ago.

“In the late 1990s, NASA’s Polar spacecraft spent years in Earth’s magnetosphere,” explains Scudder, “and it encountered many X-points during its mission.”

Data from NASA’s Polar spacecraft, circa 1998, provided crucial clues to finding magnetic X-points.

Data from NASA’s Polar spacecraft, circa 1998, provided crucial clues to finding magnetic X-points.

Image Credit: NASA


Because Polar carried sensors similar to those of MMS, Scudder decided to see how an X-point looked to Polar. “Using Polar data, we have found five simple combinations of magnetic field and energetic particle measurements that tell us when we’ve come across an X-point or an electron diffusion region. A single spacecraft, properly instrumented, can make these measurements.”

This means that single member of the MMS constellation using the diagnostics can find a portal and alert other members of the constellation. Mission planners long thought that MMS might have to spend a year or so learning to find portals before it could study them. Scudder’s work short cuts the process, allowing MMS to get to work without delay.

It’s a shortcut worthy of the best portals of fiction, only this time the portals are real. And with the new “signposts” we know how to find them.

Dr. Tony Phillips
Science at NASA